"I have been reading your amazing blog and listening to some of your podcasts with Carolyn. Not sure how I haven't run across your work before. Amazing stuff." (reader's comment, 10 May 2016)
Come chat with us! Download and install an IRC-client -- Hexchat is recommended -- and go to the channel #National-Socialism on the Undernet server.

30 December 2008

Fake Hitler Quotes in a U.S. Army Film

Why We Fight is a series of short films that was produced by Frank Capra's Liberty Films for the U.S. Army Special Service Division in 1943, with Capra directing most of the episodes. You may have seen parts of this series on some unaffiliated UHF television station that had time to fill following an afternoon movie, or maybe even on a PBS station. Even today the History Channel is recommending that the series be used in schools. I am presenting this clip as an example of the brazen lying that was perpetrated by the Allies during World War II, which goes largely unchecked to this day, and also to arm you so that you may set others straight.

The purport of this film is that anti-war activists in the United States are serving an agenda of global conquest on the part of Adolf Hitler that includes conquest of the United States. The film takes considerable liberties to advance this thesis. Some of these liberties become glaringly obvious with just a little skepticism. For example, the narrator claims to know that global conquest was "the dream in Hitler's mind as he stood at Nuremberg" in 1934.

I find that discussions about Hitler's intentions usually come down to the interpretation of some statement attributed to him. Some of the provocative statements attributed to Hitler are things that he actually said, but many are either distortions or outright inventions. In this clip we get two alleged Hitler quotes that are demonstrably very bogus -- in fact they are outright inventions compounded with subsequent distortion -- yet they have been influential and are widely repeated, even by some people who seem to regard themselves as pro-Hitler.

First there is this, from 1:27 in episode #2 of Why We Fight:

"My motto is: Destroy by all and any means. National-Socialism will reshape the world."

Hermann Rauschning's The Voice of Destruction, later republished as Conversations with Hitler, seems to be the source for the first half of this quote. (Rauschning is not a trustworthy source. If you find that the source for a quote attributed to Hitler is Rauschning, that already invalidates it, but what we get in Capra's film is even worse than that.) We find a passage containing something almost identical with that sentence at the bottom of page 11 in Rauschning's book. The underlined words are those that appeared in the film.

"To me all means will be right. My motto is not: 'Don't, whatever you do, annoy the enemy!' My motto is: 'Destroy him by all and any means.' I am the one who will wage the war!" [Rauschning, The Voice of Destruction, p. 10]

The two sentences lumped together as a Hitler quote in the film do not appear together in this source-passage.

The film distorts the meaning of the sentence that appears here. When the film omits the word "him" from the sentence as it appears in Rauschning, then places a statement about National-Socialist designs on the world after that (without any indication of an ellipse such as "..." to indicate that the two sentences did not originally appear together ) it thereby places in Hitler's mouth a nihilistic declaration of war against the entire world, rather than a theoretical statement about how to conduct some hypothetical war against a hypothetical enemy, which is all that it seems to be in Rauschning.

The second clause of the alleged Hitler quote, "National-Socialism will reshape the world," appears nowhere in Rauschning. The closest approximation appears 133 pages after the passage containing the first clause. If we accept reshape as equivalent to recast, we can say that the screenwriters for Why We Fight cobbled together the following underlined words to form the second half of their fake Hitler quote:

"With the conception of race, National Socialism will carry its revolution abroad and recast the world." [Rauschning, The Voice of Destruction, p. 143]

Unlike the first clause, this line from Rauschning seems more or less consistent with the notion of National-Socialist worldwide subversion that the film was trying to convey, but remember that Rauschning's conversations with Hitler were already fraudulent before the Hollywood screenwriters got hold of them and started making modifications.

At 15:35 this statement is attributed to Adolf Hitler:

"I am willing to sign anything. I will do anything to facilitate the success of my policy."

This view attributed to Hitler is quite important, because it rules out negotiated peace with Hitler. It leaves war as the only option. The source for it alleged in the film is "Hitler Interview, October, 1933." But it's not a real interview. It's Rauschning again. It's on page 109 of Rauschning's The Voice of Destruction. This fake quote is still used by some shoddy professional historians, e.g. Martyn Housden at the University of Bradford (UK), and Christian Leitz at the University of Auckland, and David Jablonsky of the U.S. Army War College, are still quoting despite the fact that Rauschning's fraud was exposed in 1983.

This statement attributed to Ernst Hanfstaengl at 24:02 in the second episode of Why We Fight --

"Democracy has no convictions for which men would be willing to stake their lives."

-- also comes from Rauschning. It is a slightly simplified version of what Rauschning represents Hanfstaengl as saying on page 75 of The Voice of Destruction.

At 8:19 this appears:

"Demoralize the enemy from within by surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination. That is the war of the future."

This alleged quote is all over the internet but in no instance that I have seen is a source cited.

After much searching I discovered that this too comes from Rauschning, who has been the same kind of one-stop source for outrageous claims about Hitler that the Iraqi National Congress was regarding Saddam Hussein. Here is the original fake quote:

"When the enemy is demoralized from within, when he stands on the brink of revolution, when social unrest threatens—that is the right moment. A single blow must destroy him. Aerial attacks, stupendous in their mass effect, surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination from within, the murder of leading men, overwhelming attacks on all weak points in the enemy's defense, sudden attacks, all in the same second, without regard for reserves or losses: that is the war of the future."

I have underlined the words that were cobbled together to create the fake Hitler quote for the film. As you can see, the film-maker added a layer of misrepresentation to this fake quote just as to the other one. Nowhere in the passage do you see the concatenation, ""Demoralize the enemy from within by ..." The perfect passive participle "demoralized" appears, but the imperative "Demoralize" does not. What we get in the film is really a distorted paraphrase of this already fake quote.

Even if the Hollywood screenwriters of Why We Fight didn't know that Rauschning was a fraudulent source, they at least knew that the way they were using Rauschning was dishonest.

Those screenwriters, by the way, were Eric Knight (son of a diamond merchant), Anthony Veiller (born in New York City), and Robert Heller (also born in New York City). Frank Capra was not a Jew but I cannot vouch for these three. Capra's co-director for this episode of Why We Fight, Anatole Litvak, was definitely a Jew. Litvak was born in the Ukraine. He moved to Germany to take advantage of opportunities there during the 1920s but then chose to leave Germany when the National-Socialists came to power.

20 December 2008

Alfred Ploetz introduces the term Racial Hygiene

Alfred Ploetz' 1895 work, Die Tuechtigkeit Unserer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen ("The Competence of Our Race and the Preservation of the Weak"), is credited by Robert Proctor as the book that started the racial hygiene movement in Germany.

Ploetz was a Darwinist but also a Social-Democrat. Social-Democracy as a form of Marxism was generally atheistic, but maintained a quasi-Christian assumption of human equality. Ploetz, as a German who had thrown off the mental thralldom of Christianity, took his freethinking in the characteristically German direction of skepticism about democracy and disbelief in human equality. These were heresies in Social-Democracy that a few years later led to the invention of National-Socialism. One might say that Ploetz was a Social-Democrat because National-Socialism had not yet been created as an option.

This passage supports my view that, yes there was an esoteric National-Socialism that was hostile to Christianity, but this esoteric National-Socialism was not the spooky mysticism or devil-worship described in some crazy literature that is promoted to Fundamentalist Christians in the US; rather it was scientific racism. Ploetz complains that Christianity has diminished the racial feeling in the masses, but on this point he contrasts "the small circle of leaders and researchers." These were the people who embraced the un-Christian thinkers, Darwin and Nietzsche, whom you will find mentioned frequently in medical and psychological literature from National-Socialist Germany, but almost never in literature and speeches directed to the general public, which remained largely Christian and therefore not entirely reconciled to viewing man as a biological entity.

Introduction to
Die Tuechtigkeit Unserer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen
by Alfred Ploetz
(translated by Hadding Scott, 2008)

Peoples appear and vanish, some into nothing, like the Goths, others into insignificant mediocrity, like the Greeks. It was not always the worst that thus declined. The Goths, like the Greeks, had many excellent qualities; they were peoples of heroic temperament, and indeed they dwindled or withered away under influences to which they were not entirely adapted. Even today on our own border we see a people puzzlingly ill. The French as a race have stagnated; indeed they are declining in spite of the materially favorable conditions under which they live, and only the new generation of foreign immigrants upholds the French name -- but not the French race.

Peoples and races are just organic life-forms, determined like beasts and plants through their component parts – cells here, men there – for which their environment is a complex of favorable or unfavorable conditions. And just as we have, by the combination of favorable conditions, created a hygiene for man, which, based ultimately on the life of his cells, teaches him how he may maintain health as long as possible and postpone death, so is it high time, based on the vital functions of men, to attempt the founding of a hygiene of the races and of all mankind, which teaches how an organic collectivity of men may keep itself as vigorous as possible and postpone its perishing as long as possible.

The word race is used among men in various ways. Thus one speaks simply of the human race and means thereby the totality of mankind. One also needs that word however for the subdivisions into which the species Homo sapiens has been divided; one speaks for example of the Caucasian and the Mongoloid race. But one also needs this word for further classifications, such as for the Germans, Romans, etc. Furthermore it is convenient for the designation of contemporary racial mixtures that only appear as unities because of a shared language or political administration, as in the case of the French race, the British race, etc.

Apart from a brief discussion of the biological races in relation to their cultural value, I will use the word simply to designate a human collectivity existing through generations, in regard to its physical and mental qualities. This is all the more feasible since collective explanations up to the ones mentioned in the previous sentence are just as valid for small as for large communities of humans, for races in the zoological sense just as well as for mixed races and modern states. [...]

At first glance one could suppose that the conditions for the prosperity of a race were the same as the conditions for the prosperity of every single member of it, that racial hygiene and the customary hygiene of the individual were one and the same. This is not the case however without something further, and there are excellent researchers who even want to acknowledge a deep conflict between modern hygiene and racial well-being.

Wallace, the co-founder of the theory of natural selection, affirms this in the following words: “Hitherto it was generally assumed that beneficial influences, such as those of education, hygiene, social refinement, had a positive effect and must lead in and for themselves to a constant elevation of all civilized races. This view rests on the belief that every elevation of the individual accomplished during his life also carried over to his posterity, and that it thus will be possible, without even any selection of the better or elimination of the lower types, to create a constant progress in physical, moral, and mental qualities. But in the last years this opinion has been shaken with weighty doubt, namely by the significant researches of Galton and Weismann about the fundamental causes of heredity.”

Schallmayer expresses himself even more directly: “that the greatest conceivable advances which the therapeutic medicine of the future ever could make will probably restore the momentarily sick individual to health, but not mankind.”

The anthropologist Ammon expresses himself similarly in his interesting work about human selection: “Elimination – of the individuals most unfavorably equipped in regard to morality through administration of justice, economic misery, etc. – is a necessity, if the average level of humanity shall not decline. [...].”

Actually the demand of most Darwinians entails that the struggle for existence must be maintained within human society, a verdict of hygiene that would protect all, the strong and the weak, because otherwise the society would degenerate. I would need to cite too much in order to be fair to the numerous remarks of the Darwinians on this point.

Let the words of Darwin himself suffice: “As every other beast, man has without doubt reached his present exalted state through a struggle for survival as a consequence of his rapid multiplication, and if he shall progress even higher, it is to be feared that he must remain subject to a severe struggle.”

In any case it is apparent from the remarks of these men, including even the mild-mannered Darwin, that the view that the wellbeing of our race would be best attained through the improvement of living conditions for all individuals, is certainly not universally accepted.

Therefrom follows the necessity to balance the concept of hygiene in the usual sense, individual hygiene, with another concept, that of the hygiene of a human collectivity. Thus one could speak of the hygiene of a nation, of a race in the narrower sense, or of the entire human race. In the further course of the book I will constantly, unless explicitly noted otherwise, apply the term racial hygiene in the general sense that corresponds to my use of the word race.

This seemed to me all the more permissible since, as I believe, the hygiene of the totality of mankind coincides with that of the Aryan race, which -- apart from some smaller races, like the Jewish race, which is most likely for the most part Aryan anyway -- represents the culture-race par excellence, the furtherance of which is synonymous with the furtherance of humanity in general.

I know not whether the term racial hygiene has ever been uttered before; it is certain however that the concept contained in it has lived for the longest time in many heads, and that it plays a great role in the spiritual battles of our days.

When in old Sparta the law ordained that newborn children should be dipped in cold mountain water and the feeblest among them exposed on the desolate heights of Taygetos, it did harm individuals, but it brought an intended benefit to the collectivity. The same idea guided Lycurgus and the other collaborators on the Spartan constitution in the ordering of many other human relationships as well. According to Plutarch, Lycurgus was a very conscious racial hygienist who also clearly recognized the importance of procreation for his purposes. In his biographies Plutarch reports the following: “In education, which he considered the greatest and most important business of a lawgiver, he started completely from the beginning and directed his attention first of all to marriages and the creation of children.... First he sought to harden the bodies of the girls through running, wrestling, and throwing the discus and spears, wherewith the fruit generated in a powerful body could germinate and prosper mightily; she herself however might achieve the necessary powers for birth and withstand the pains easily and without danger. In order however to weed out all softness, and other feminine qualities, he accustomed the girls as well as the boys to attend the festive events nude, and to dance and sing thus both at certain festivals in the present and before the eyes of the youths.... ”

What this constitution, or at least one similar to it, had achieved, was proven three and one-half centuries later by Leonidas and his band in the bottleneck at Thermopylae.

The idea of racial refinement lay also at least partly at the base of the custom of the ancient Germans, to allow the father to kill feeble, ugly, or otherwise displeasing newborns. Also the Germanic Freien and Edelfreien, like the castes of of many other peoples and ages, often understood very well how to safeguard the racial interests of their body, or at least tried.

Nowadays among the cultural nations the understanding and the care of racial interests is limited on the one hand to the ruling princely houses and the nobility, on the other hand to racehorses, hunting dogs, neat cattle, and other domestic animals.

Christianity and modern democracy with their doctrine and demands of equality have so diminished the sense of race in the masses that the conflict between the humanitarian socialist demands and racial wellbeing indeed no longer penetrates their consciousness. In the masses, I say.

In the small circle of leaders and researchers, through the advent of Darwin and the political advance of Social Democracy, the racial interest has become very vital again, and the sword-blows of great and small knights of the mind rattle merrily through the springtime air of modern science. Here socialism, here Darwinism: behind these battle-cries are concealed nothing further than individual hygiene applied to politics, which would create for each individual the most favorable possible conditions for development of the individual, and racial hygiene, which believes that it cannot forego the elimination of feeble and bad individuals for the wellbeing of the race.

Many researchers indeed have laid the emphasis in the definition of Hygiene on the wellbeing of the collectivity, as for example Professor Demme, the Berne pediatrician, in the following words: “Hygiene gathers as in a focus the collected results of scientific medical research, so far as they can find application for the wellbeing of the state and the people.” But he has become no more conscious of the conflict.

Others, again, have denied the conflict. So says Georg in his Soziale Hygiene: “Meanwhile there has been no lack of serious opponents to the newly aspiring science. First there are the orthodox Darwinians, who are not favorably disposed toward social hygiene. They reproach the foiling of natural selection, which (they say) allows the elements weak in vitality to perish in the struggle for existence, and would guarantee a strong stock.... Hereupon one responds, completely apart from the humanitarian side of the matter, that social hygiene affords no less protection to the strong and healthy than to the feeble and sick.” [Ploetz could have pointed out here that within a civilized society natural selection has already been foiled.]

Even Rosenthal and Rubner express themselves in a similar way.

It is apparent that with this denial of the conflict nothing is accomplished. The strong and healthy do not even need the protection of [individual] hygiene, at least not in the same degree as the feeble, and are only more frequently exposed to mixture with the feeble [as a result].

Even the argument that the average lifespan has increased significantly since the promulgation of hygienic measures, and that the whole race thus has not only suffered no harm, but has benefited, may not be accepted without something further. Lifespan is the result of two conflicting components, the strength of the constitution of the individuals, and sum of the harmful influences on it. The result, the lifespan, can increase because of a decrease of harmful influences, while the constitutional strength increases or at least remains constant, or while it decreases, as long as this decrease in constitutional strength is not enough to offset the decrease in harmful influences.

In other words: an earthen jar can last longer than an iron jar if it is exposed to less frequent and less severe blows than the iron jar. That we really have lost some of the iron from our constitutional strength, even Rosenthal and Georg admit, but so has a multitude of the most eminent researchers, although others disagree.

The authorization for the confrontation between individual and racial hygiene thus continues to exist, and now arises the question of which of the two we have to regard on principle as dominant.

The first standard for all human activity is the maintenance of healthy, strong, flourishing life. This standard proceeds both from the objective consideration of man as a self-maintaining attracting and repelling mechanism, and from the fundamental motives of the instinct-world, the survival-instincts, the dissatisfaction of which becomes directly apparent to our psyche as reluctance, and the satisfaction as desire. Let one look up something about this in Hauptmann’s Metaphysik in der modernen Physiologie, one of the sagest and most significant works that has appeared recently on the borderland of physiology and philosophy.

Individual hygiene also has proceeded from the survival-instincts of the individual and constructs its most refined and deepened expressions from it. As a child chiefly of the past few decades, individual hygiene has been infected a bit with the fin de siècle attitude: after us, the deluge. The effect that these quick benefits might have on the wellbeing of later generations was not of much concern.

Racial hygiene pertains precisely to the later generations, which here in relation to the descendants corresponds to the principle of individual hygiene, to desire the greatest wellbeing for the greatest number. The concept race pertains not to one generation but to many in succession, whose becoming and perishing constitute the life of the race.

Hence for each generation the immediate goal of racial hygiene is always the wellbeing of the next. Therefore the roots of racial hygiene are found in the instinct-world of individuals. Those are the instincts of parental love and concern for the great community to which one belongs, be it family, tribe, folk, or all mankind; thus even patriotism and the love of humanity, which mostly is nothing further than the love for its Aryan portion.

The parents who seek to beget and to raise their children under the most favorable possible conditions. The nobleman who approaches the choice of his wife according to the survival-interests of his stock. The patriot who with self-denial undertakes sacrifices that are necessary for the prosperity of his people also in a more distant time. The philanthropist who dreams of a golden age where a better, more fortunate generation flourishes. And the artist who would like to see human beauty not only in marble and canvas but much more lordly in flesh and blood. They all have a sense for the future of the race and are ready to make sacrifices for it in the present. They live, as Nietzsche says, more for the Childrenland than for the Fatherland.

All these motives constitute mental survival-adaptations for the type, but they also determine individual experiences of desire and revulsion; the proficiency of posterity is the goal.

Opinions vary greatly about the content of human happiness. It would be trivial to argue about it at length. But agreement might indeed prevail on the point that there is a foundation of shared necessary conditions for the happiness of all, such as health, physical and mental strength, entitlement to a certain minimum of economic goods, etc., and that there are in addition a series of desirable conditions, the realization of which is not really absolutely necessary for the enduring welfare of everyone, but is experienced as a very desirable bonus, as for example beautiful bodily forms, a handsome dwelling, a fine garden, artworks, etc. And here a decisive impulse sets in. The elevation of the inner conditions of happiness lying in our qualities, thus the perfection of humanity, is only in a very limited way a challenge relating to the life of the individual. External imprints, upbringing, practice of functions can only develop given talents to a certain point so that they function better for the individual in question, but the elevation of the good talents in the heredity of the next generation, thus the increase of the capital of human proficiency, is a problem of the life of the type and therefore falls completely within the sphere of racial hygiene.

Perfection must still for reasons apart from the mere maintenance of the race remain the object of racial hygiene, not only because the ways to mere maintenance pass over imperceptibly into those of perfection, but also because with all racial hygienic measures the achievement of mere maintenance, given the uncertainty of our methods, would be reached with certainty only if we strive for perfection.

The escalation of our brain-talents is the most necessary condition that we know for an improvement of our conditions of happiness. All progress in this means better discernment and thereby better governance of our own and of external nature. A tool and a weapon for that is our brain. Only an escalation of its talents from generation to generation can grant the necessary strength to humanity to wrest itself from the enfolding arms of misery.

Racial hygiene, the striving to keep the race healthy and to perfect its talents, must remain as the ruling principle, and individual hygiene along with its social and political expressions must be subordinated as soon as it seriously endangers this principle.


25 November 2008

How Israeli Jews Drive

I have encountered this kind of maniacal Jewish driver also in the USA. This is symptomatic of a personality type that can only be described as crazed.

From "Slow Train to Jerusalem" by Jane Friedman
New York Times, 7 August 1983:

The well-versed traveler to the Holy Land is familiar with the legendary Israeli, his qualities and his roadside manners. Intense, in a rush, he speeds, tailgates, beeps and passes on the four-lane Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway, the scene of horrific car accidents every week.

23 November 2008

"A Land without a People"? Palestine in 1880

Scene from 1910 in one of several German (Christian) settlements in Palestine, Sarona, established 1871. The Germans were the first to bring modern agricultural techniques and large-scale reforestation to Palestine. Many were deported to Australia during World War II, and the last mayor of Sarona, Gotthilf Wagner, was ambushed and shot to death by Zionists in 1946. What used to be Sarona is now in the middle of Tel Aviv.

Zionist Jews like to pretend that Palestine was relatively unpopulated and/or barren prior to their arrival and seizure of the territory. Some of them also like to claim that Jerusalem was already a Jewish city in the 19th century. I am offering this information from a 19th century source as a check on that propaganda.

In these passages Dr. William M. Thomson, an elderly Christian missionary, discusses some of the highly productive farming communities that existed in Palestine long before the Zionist takeover wherein it has been claimed that the Jews "made the desert bloom." Palestine was already quite fertile where, as Thomson observes, an underground "river of vast breadth" seems to flow, not realizing that this underground "river" was actually a system of irrigation tunnels left by the Persian Empire.

Thomson also mentions that Bedouins inhabited significant portions of "the Holy Land" but unlike the industrious Philistines (i.e. Palestinians) of Jaffa and Gaza he does not find much to praise in them; yet even they are evidence that the land was not uninhabited.

Oddly, Thomson repeatedly waxes romantic amid observation of the Palestinians in mundane tasks, viewing through a Biblical lens and thinking, this is how it must have been in Biblical times, but when he comes to the modern Jews living in Jerusalem he is totally unimpressed. His impression of them is both unattractive and un-Biblical. He has to contrive rationales to continue believing that they really are the heroes of his favorite story-book.

I think that it may be a mistake on Thomson's part to try to name a cause for the gloomy demeanor of the Jews that he saw at Jerusalem. We have plenty of gloomy Jews in the USA today, and some that look like death warmed over even when nothing is particularly wrong. For some people gloom is the normal mode; Jewish negativity is proverbial. The poverty-stricken appearance of those 19th century Jews may be misleading too, if it is true that Jews cultivated the habit of appearing as paupers no matter how much wealth they accumulated.

Thomson estimated that Jews constituted only 40% of the population of Jerusalem (10,000 out of 25,000) in 1880, even after several decades of rapid increase due to the arrival of Ashkenazim from Europe. The fact that there were some Jews in Jerusalem in the 19th century by no means proves that it was a Jewish city; much less does it imply that Palestine in general belonged to Jews. Thomson mentions encountering Jews only in and near Jerusalem, and by the Dead Sea, where he saw encamped "Muhammedans, Druses, Maronites, Catholics, Greeks, Armenians, Copts, Syrians, Jews, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, and infidels, in one vast congregation (p.353)."

Selected passages from
by William M. Thomson, D. D. (Forty-five years a missionary in Syria and Palestine)

Who made the desert bloom? The ancient Persian irrigation system at Jaffa

Our position is not only novel but picturesque, and extremely pleasant. Notwithstanding all I had heard and read about these gardens, I am surprised at their extent. From the roof of the house the eye wanders over a veritable wilderness of luxuriant vegetation, apparently without limits, and certainly very beautiful.

Jaffa is famed in modern times for her gardens and orchards of delicious fruit more than for anything else. They are quite extensive, flourishing, and profitable, but their very existence depends upon the fact that water to any amount can be procured in every garden, and at a moderate depth. The entire plain seems to cover a river of vast breadth, percolating through the sand en route to the sea. Hundreds of Persian water-wheels, working night and day, produce no sensible diminution, and this inexhaustible source of wealth underlies the whole territory of the Philistines [i.e. Palestinians] down to Gaza at least, and probably much farther south, though wells have to be sunk to a great depth in many places to reach the water.

Have we any reason to believe that these Persian water-wheels were here in ancient days of Jewish history? I have been greatly interested in them, and they seem admirably adapted for the purpose intended.

Simple in construction, cheap, quickly made, soon repaired, easily worked, they raise an immense quantity of water. Many efforts have been made to introduce pumps, but they always fail and get out of repair ; and as there is no one able to mend them, they are thrown aside, and the gardener returns to his na'urah. The whole of this machinery is quickly enumerated and described. A clumsy cog-wheel, fitted to an upright post, is made to revolve horizontally by a mule attached to a sweep; this turns a similar one perpendicularly, placed at the end of a heavy beam, which has a large wide drum built into it, directly over the mouth of the well. Over this drum revolve two rough hawsers, or thick ropes, made of twigs and branches twisted together, and upon them are fastened small jars or wooden buckets. One side descends while the other rises, carrying the small buckets with them ; those descending empty, those ascending full, and as they pass over the top they discharge into a trough which conveys the water to the cistern. The length of these hawsers and the number of the buckets depend, of course, upon the depth of the well, for the buckets are fastened on the hawser about two feet apart. The depth of wells in Jaffa varies from ten to forty feet. If the mule or camel turns the wheel rapidly, which he rarely does, a bucket with about two gallons of water will be carried over the top of it and discharged into the trough every second ; and it must be a good pump that will steadily do as much. The hawser is made of twigs, generally of myrtle, not merely because it is cheap and easily plaited by the gardener himself, but because its extreme roughness prevents it from slipping round on the wheel, as an ordinary rope would do, and thus fail to carry up the loaded buckets.

There are other kinds of water-wheels in this country. The shaduf, so conspicuous on the Nile, is nowhere to be seen in Palestine, but the well-sweep and bucket are used in many places ; and I once saw an Egyptian working an apparatus much like the shaduf on the shore of the lake a little north of the city of Tiberias.

Another method is common in this land of Philistia, which I have also seen on the plains of Central Syria. A large buffalo-skin is so attached to cords that, when let down into the well, it opens and is instantly filled, and, being drawn up, it closes so as to retain the water. The rope by which it is hoisted to the top works over a wheel, and is drawn by oxen, mules, or camels, that walk directly from the well to the length of the rope, and then return, only to repeat the operation until a sufficient quantity of water is raised. This, also, is a very successful mode of drawing water.

The wheel and bucket, of different sorts and sizes, are much used where the water is near the surface, and also along rapid rivers. For shallow wells merely a wheel is used, whose diameter equals the desired elevation of the water. The rim of this wheel is large, hollow, and divided into compartments answering the place of buckets. A hole near the top of each bucket allows it to fill, as that part of the rim, in revolving, dips under the water. This, of course, will be discharged into the trough when the bucket begins to descend, and thus a constant succession of streams falls into the cistern. The wheel itself is turned by oxen, or mules, or camels.

This system of wheels is seen on a grand scale at Hums, Hamath, and all along the Orontes. The wheels there are of enormous size. The diameter of some of those at Hamath is eighty or ninety feet. Small paddles are attached to the rim, and the stream is turned upon them by a low dam with sufficient force to carry the huge wheel around with all its load of ascending buckets. These immense wheels are driven by the river itself; and the water, carried up to the required height, is sufficient to irrigate the extensive gardens. There is, perhaps, no hydraulic machinery in use by which so much water is raised to so great an elevation at so small an expense. Certainly I have seen none so picturesque or so musical. These wheels, with their enormous loads, slowly revolve on their groaning axles, all day and all night, each one singing a different tune, with every imaginable variation of tone, sobs, sighs, shrieks, and groans — loud, louder, loudest, down to the bottom of the gamut — a concert wholly unique and half infernal in the night, which, heard once, will never be forgotten.


The fruits of Jaffa are the same as those of Sidon, but with certain variations in their character. Sidon has the best bananas, Jaffa furnishes the best pomegranates. The oranges of Sidon are more juicy and of a richer flavor than those of Jaffa ; but the latter are FRUITS OF JAFFA. 23 larger, hang on the trees much larger, hang on the trees much later, and will bear to be shipped to distant regions. They are, therefore, more valuable to the producer. It is here that you see in perfection fragrant blossoms encircling golden fruit. In March and April these Jaffa gardens are indeed enchanting. The air is overloaded with the mingled perfume of orange, lemon, apple, apricot, quince, plum, and china trees in blossom. The people then frequent the biarah, sit on mats beneath the grateful shade, sip coffee, smoke the nargileh, sing, converse, or sleep, as best suits their individual idiosyncrasies, till evening, when they slowly return to their homes in the city. To us of the restless West this way of making kaif us of the restless West this way of making kaif soon wearies by its slumberous monotony, but it is elysium to the Oriental.

Are these orchards remunerative in a pecuniary point of view ?

I am informed that they yield ten per cent, on the capital invested, clear of all expense. Our friend Mr. Murad tells me that a biarah which costs 100,000 piastres will produce annually 15,000; but 5000 of this must be expended in irrigation, ploughing, planting, and manuring. This allows the proprietor 10,000 piastres, which is a fair profit on capital invested in agricultural pursuits.

The Friendly People of Fertile Gaza

The first time I came into this region I was agreeably surprised to find it neither flat nor barren, nor in any way resembling a sandy desert, as I had been led to expect from reading the narrative of Philip's ride through it with the eunuch. From the distant mountains it indeed has the appearance of a level plain, but the view is so vast that even very considerable hills are lost to the eye. In reality, Philistia closely resembles in appearance some of the rolling prairies of the Mississippi Valley. The country is equally lovely, and no less fertile. I am inclined to believe that, owing to something in the nature of the soil, or of the climate, or both, the sources of its fertility are even more inexhaustible than in most parts of our own land. Without manure, and with a style of ploughing and general culture which would secure nothing but failure in other countries, this vast plain continues to produce splendid crops every year, and this, too, be it remembered, after forty centuries of such tillage.

Here we are at el Muntar. I have brought you to the top of this high tell, not to honor the mukam of the saint, nor because this is the "hill that is before Hebron," to which Samson carried the gate of Gaza — though the tradition is probably correct, since it is in the proper direction — but because from it there is a fine view, stretching far away to the south-east, even to the ridge that overshadows el Khulil, as the city of Abraham is now called. Nothing more than this can be intended by "the hill before Hebron," for the town itself is at least thirty miles off, and behind lofty mountains. Be this as it may, I know no one stand-point from which you can survey so much of old Philistia as from this Muntar. We are to pass through the central part eastwards to-day, and can study it at our leisure ; but the southern region, quite to the desert, is best seen from here. I once came from er Ruhaibeh, spending the night on the bank of Nahr es Suny, where it unites with Wady es Seba', which comes down from Beer-sheba. The rolling plain from that wady northwards to Gaza was then green and flowery as a meadow, and much of it clothed with wheat ; but there is not a village along the entire route, and all the grain belonged to tent-dwelling Arabs. We passed many of their encampments, where every kind of work common in ordinary villages was in active operation, and carried on with the same sort of implements. There were, however, as was natural, many more camels and larger flocks than ordinary peasants possess ; and these formed a very striking feature in this agricultural tableau. All around us were examples of primitive pastoral life, like those seen on this same plain, I suppose, in the days of Abraham and Isaac. Men, women, and children, clad in garments, and following employments, pastoral and agricultural, like those of the patriarchs. It carried one back, as by enchantment, to the tents pitched in the valley of Gerar in the days of those venerable ancestors of God's chosen people.

These pastoral Arabs present a very interesting study. Unlike the wandering Bedawin, their cousins, they are permanently settled on this plain along the seaboard ; and their manner of life must closely resemble that of the Philistines with whom the patriarchs associated. We were passing through their encampments for several hours, and were everywhere welcomed as friends. The women were not veiled, nor was there any objection made to our visiting their tents, and inspecting their furniture, their employments, and even their garments. They were far from idle ; but, as the harvest had not yet commenced, they were chiefly occupied with their flocks and herds, and in the manufacture of cheese and butter. Some of the women were spinning goat's-hair into strands, to be woven into coarse black material for tent-coverings, rugs, and sacks for the grain. Their spindle was of the most simple kind, being often merely a stone, which they dexterously twirled around until the strand was sufficiently twisted. They can weave without any loom. The threads of the warp are stretched upon the ground, and made fast at either end to a stout stick ; and the threads of the woof are passed through with the hand, and pressed back into position by a rude wooden comb.

Boys and girls were scattered over the plain, watching the flocks to prevent them from trespassing upon the wheat-fields. From every camp broad and well-trodden paths led across the plain to the wells, where only the flocks are watered ; and I noticed that many of these paths turned towards the sea-shore, probably because water is there found at less depth than in the interior. These wells are the places of public resort, and there one can see and study to the best advantage the appearance, manners, customs, and costumes of these modern Philistines. There they gather, with all their belongings, in groups picturesque and suggestive to the traveller and to the eye and imagination of the artist.

German Colonists at Sarona
(pp. 45-49)

We have a long detour to make [on the route from Jaffa to Caesarea], and I hope we shall find the tents pitched and dinner awaiting when we reach our camp in the evening. For what special purpose is this detour? To obtain a general view of the northern part of the plain of Sharon, and to visit the fountain-head of the river 'Aujeh at er Ras, which has recently become a competitor with Kefr Saba for the honor of being the site of Antipatris.

Here, on our right, is a suburb evidently modern, and the houses have a familiar appearance, not unlike those in our own land.

They are foreign, and the people who inhabit them are also foreign, and connected mostly with the German colony through which we shall pass in about an hour's time. This nearest and most conspicuous house is the residence of our present consular representative, Mr. Hardegg ; and near it is the girls' school, and the home of Mrs. Hay and her invalid sister, Miss Baldwin, who conduct it. For similar benevolent purposes, that large and prominent edifice on the elevated ridge east of the city has been erected by Miss Arnott, an energetic and devoted lady from Scotland. May their self-denying work be crowned with abundant success.

Where is to be the terminus of the much-talked-of railroad to Jerusalem ?

You noticed a large building on our right, before we passed this suburb ; that is to be the first station, and it is the only part of the enterprise that has hitherto been achieved.

Or ever will be, I suppose. I cannot associate Joppa and the Holy City with a modern railway, even in imagination.

It would be unwise to pronounce almost any projected enterprise impossible in these days. And since there are no great engineering obstacles to overcome between Jaffa and Jerusalem, a railroad could soon be built, were there any adequate demand for it, or travel and traffic to support it. [The railroad from Jaffa (a.k.a Joppa) to Jerusalem was completed in 1892.] When I was here a few years ago, there was some talk of excavating a harbor along the low ground extending into the gardens eastward from that solitary station-house. It could be made, no doubt ; and when the great Hebrew capitalists of the world purchase Palestine from the Sultan, and restore it to the Jews, it very likely will be.

If not till then, the prospect is dim and distant enough.

You need not be too confident even of that. Some such project is persistently kept before the public by letters, essays, pamphlets, and lectures, premillennial and others. And it is a fact not to be ignored, that many intelligent people, both in Europe and America, are now greatly interested in this subject, and in this country with direct reference to such a consummation. Things more strange have happened in this land, and in the world at large, than that the Rothschilds, the Montefiores, and their compeers in colossal wealth, should purchase Palestine; and so far as the bankrupt government of the Sultan is concerned, the best use that could be made of this country would be to sell it. Now let us dismiss this subject, with the remark that although it is impossible to be in Palestine at the present day without having these and kindred topics thrust upon our attention, yet we need not dwell upon them, nor allow them to interfere with our special purposes.

We are continually meeting groups of donkeys, with baskets swinging on either side, and filled with the largest, brightest oranges I ever saw. They are to be sent by sea to foreign parts, I suppose, for there can be no local demand for such quantities of fruit.

No doubt; for this is but one of the many similar roads that converge from all parts of these gardens towards a common centre about the entrance into the city.

How extensive are the gardens?

The entire length, from north to south, is about seven miles, the average breadth one mile and a half, and the variety and quantity of fruit produced is quite surprising. Did you ever compare the list of modern fruits with those mentioned in the Bible ?

I have never had the specific information necessary for such a comparison.

No better data can be found in the country than those furnished by these gardens of Jaffa, and we may make the comparison here and now. The result will probably disappoint you. Those mentioned by the sacred writers, such as olives and figs, dates and apples, pomegranates and grapes, are all here; while the fruits that are the life and glory of these gardens — the orange, the lemon, the apricot, the peach, the pear, the plum, the quince, and the banana — do not appear at all on the Biblical list. In like manner the number and variety of berries, of vegetables, of nuts, and of flowers known and valued in our times, far exceed those of the ancients.

How do you account for the great superiority of the modern?

By the supposition that these fruits are not indigenous products of this country, but were brought into it from foreign lands, in connection with the Persian, Greek, and Roman empires, and, of course, after the canon even of the New Testament was closed. Many of the names in common use among the Arab peasants are neither Hebrew nor Arabic, and not a few of them are evidently Persian. It was not until after the Hebrew isolation had given place to general intercourse with distant lands that the fruits and vegetables in question were introduced into this country.

What place is this which we are laboriously approaching through this shifting sand ?

It is the German colony, and bears the appropriate name of Sarona. The situation is high, and ought to be healthy. The houses, erected in the midst of pleasant gardens, with ample space around them, and painted white, have a very home-like and inviting appearance.

It is surprising to find veritable Germans upon this plain of Sharon. Who are they, and under whose auspices have they been led to emigrate to this lonely spot?

The motive or impulse is a religious one, and the parent society, called The Temple, has its head-quarters in Germany, I believe at Stuttgard. Though I have had their published articles of faith kindly sent me by Herr Hardegg, the head of a similar colony located at the foot of Carmel, near Haifa, I cannot easily give a summary of them. Their assumed title, The Temple, intimates the belief that they are to found some sort of a spiritual temple in the Holy Land. So far as I know, they are plain, honest, hard-working people. Amongst them are carpenters, masons, shoemakers, blacksmiths, and one or more representatives of nearly every other trade or profession in civilized life. The colony numbers, all told — men, women, and children — about two hundred souls. Herr Hoffman is the presiding elder of the little community; but I believe there are no recognized clergy amongst them, and no special importance is attached to the common ordinances of the Christian Church. The site occupied by that part of the colony near the city belonged originally to an American company, under the control of a Mr. Adams, which was mismanaged, and ended disastrously many years ago. But peace to Sarona and its kind-hearted people! It is full two hours' ride to er Ras, across the wide and fertile plain of Sharon, and we must push on.

As there are very few villages on this part of the plain, I suppose it must be unhealthy.

All along the river 'Aujeh, which you see below us on our left, malarial fevers are very common during the months of summer and autumn; and those who cultivate the land locate their homes at a distance — generally on the lower slopes of the mountains. You can see them dotting the foot-hills of Judaea far away to the south, and northward also, along the picturesque declivities of Samaria. That dilapidated castle coming into view on our left marks the site of er Ras, and to visit it we have come thus far out of our way.

What is it, or was it, and for what distinguished ?

The castle was called Mirabel by the Crusaders, and built, doubtless, to command the fountain and the road.

The Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem as of 1880
(p. 544)

Re-entering the city, I passed down eastwards from Zion Gate through the Jewish quarter, or Haret el Yehud. It is the most squalid part of the city, and the inhabitants make no effort to clean their filthy lanes and streets. I was in search of the new synagogue, which, standing on the eastern brow of Zion, directly fronting the Haram area, is quite a conspicuous object. It is a large
square building with a lofty dome, but without the least pretensions to architectural adornment on the outside, and with little to relieve the severe simplicity of the interior except some texts in Hebrew painted upon the walls.

It is a comparatively new edifice, and, therefore, has a fresh and cheerful appearance, in marked contrast to the wretched hovels around it. The [recently immigrated] Ashkenazim, to whom it belongs, are chiefly of German and Polish origin, and are under the protection of their several consular agents. The Sephardim, though mostly from Spain and Portugal, and speaking a corrupt Spanish, are, nevertheless Turkish subjects, and the only Jewish community recognized by the Government. They have their synagogue in that vicinity, and there are other smaller ones in different parts of Haret el Yehud: but none of them are specially attractive.

I have a vivid recollection of my first visit to one of these synagogues, many years ago. The room had nothing in or about it like any other place of worship I ever entered, and the congregation was in character and keeping with the place. I never saw such an assemblage of old, pale, and woe-begone countenances.

The behavior of the worshippers was very peculiar and somewhat ridiculous. The men, with broad-brimmed hats, or whatever other head-dress they possessed, were reading or muttering prayers, and while doing so they twisted and jerked and wriggled about incessantly, and at times with great vehemence, that "all their bones should praise the Lord," as one of them explained the matter to me. When they began what was understood to be singing, it was the most outrageous concert of harsh nasal sounds I ever heard. It was Hebrew, too; but if David thus "praised the Lord," I should never have thought of calling him the sweet singer of Israel.

And yet, I suppose, it was much after this fashion that he and all his band of trained musicians did actually celebrate the praises of the Most High. You hear the same nasal twang and grating gutturals in the singing of every denomination throughout the East. The Orientals know nothing of harmony, and cannot appreciate it when heard, but they are often spellbound, or wrought up to transports of ecstasy, by this style of music ; and no doubt the Temple service, performed by those trained for it, stirred the deepest fountains of feeling in the vast assemblies of Israel gathered at Jerusalem on their great feasts.

There is something inexpressibly sad in the features, deportment, and costume of these children of Abraham, as they grope about the ruins of their once joyous city.

This is partly owing to the fact that many of them have been great sinners elsewhere, and have come up here from all countries whither the Lord hath driven them, to purge away their guilt by abstinence, mortification, and devotion ; then to die, and be buried as near the Holy City as possible. This also accounts for the ever-increasing multitude of their graves, which are gradually covering the side of Olivet. The Jews come to Jerusalem to die ; and a community gathered for that specific purpose will not be particularly gay, or very careful about appearances.

In their Biblical and historical relations to the Holy City, the Jews form the most interesting class of her mingled population: but it is difficult for a stranger, while wandering amongst their wretched habitations, to have any other feeling in regard to them than that of compassion. They are miserably poor, and almost wholly dependent upon their coreligionists in Europe for their support. All their public buildings and charitable institutions have been established and are supported by the liberality of Sir Moses Montefiore, Baron Rothschild, and other wealthy Hebrews in distant countries.

Population and Demographics of Jerusalem as of 1880
(p. 559)

I found it impossible to ascertain the number of the present inhabitants of the city, some estimating it at sixteen thousand, others as high as thirty-five thousand. You are aware that the Turkish Government does not take any reliable census, and hence all statements founded upon its estimates must be mere approximations. It is certain, however, that the population of Jerusalem is steadily, though not rapidly, increasing. My own acquaintance with the city extends over nearly half a century, and during that long period I suppose the population has doubled — that is, from twelve thousand in 1833 to something more than twenty-five thousand at the present day. The Jews have increased more than any other class, and probably amount, in round numbers, to ten thousand, the Moslems to eight or nine thousand, and the Christians of all sects to six or seven thousand. This gives a total population of over twenty-five thousand.

Some Hereditary Diseases of Negroes

It is nice to see the biological characteristics of the race, as opposed to White racism, acknowledged as the reason why Negroes get more of some illnesses than Whites.

I assume that "South Asian" in this article means the racially mixed people of southern India and environs, who can be extremely dark and may have some portion of Negro ancestry. There are Negroes living on islands near India, and there was also a slave trade 1000 years ago that spread Negroes and Negro genes all over the Indian Ocean rim. Many "Middle Eastern" and "Mediterranean" people also have some Negro ancestry. The article avoids using clear racial terms, preferring instead to talk about "communities" and geographic origin, but most likely these conditions all pertain to Negro ancestry.

The aversion to considering race goes so far in the UK that screening for sickle cell is offered to White women, who are not at risk for it.

In spite of the fear of racial discussion, the article makes some race-specific suggestions for maintaining good health: e.g. Negroes should not eat all the same foods that White people eat, and they should not have their ears pierced or get tattoos.

When is someone going to take some concern about the special health needs of White people and make race-specific recommendations for us? Certainly a list could be compiled of things that Blacks do that Whites, for our own wellbeing, should not do, not just for physical but for mental health, and for maximizing our peculiar potentials.

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Why good health is in the genes

7:00am Saturday 22nd November 2008

While all of us have the same general health concerns, some conditions are more prevalent in different races - with recent research revealing a higher rate of prostate cancer in black men. We look at black health and wellbeing.

By Gabrielle Fagan

While we all have the same general health concerns, some people may be more at risk from certain illnesses because of their race.

A UK study recently suggested that black men in England are three times more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men. Researchers at the University of Bristol looked at hospital records for both white and black men and found that the rate of prostate cancer was significantly higher among the black population.

Black men also tend to be diagnosed with prostate cancer at an earlier age, typically five years younger than white men.

Also African or African Caribbean people who live in the UK, along with those in the South Asian communities, are thought to be five times more likely to have diabetes. Both communities are also more at risk from high blood pressure and stroke than the general population.

Scientists are still trying to find out what may cause the increased risks, but diet and genes that affect the storing and processing of fat in the body may be important factors.

NHS Choices recently launched an online information site specifically targeting black health issues. "We identified a need for an information source on specific health issues affecting certain communities," explains Mark Pownall, its senior clinical editor.

The site also focuses on inherited blood conditions that mainly affect people of African, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Asian origin, such as sickle cell anaemia.

"We hope it will raise awareness," Pownall says. "It's been well received, with a lot of interest in its guidance on how people can protect or improve their health."

:: PROSTATE CANCER Men of African Caribbean origin are three times more likely to get prostate cancer - the most common cancer in men in the UK - than white men. They also tend to be diagnosed five years younger, a study of all cases by the University of Bristol, in London and Bristol found.

"The study indicates that there is a true biological difference between ethnic groups and this knowledge could potentially lead to improved care for men at higher risk of developing prostate cancer," says Dr Joanna Peak, science information officer at Cancer Research UK.

Researchers are looking at what causes this increased risk, but diet - some research points to a higher risk in Western diets rich in saturated animal fats and red meat - and genes may be important factors.


:: SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA There are certain inherited blood conditions that mainly affect people of African, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Asian origin.

Sickle cell disease affects around 12,500 people in England, with around 9,000 sufferers in greater London, making it the most common inherited disease in the country.

It is a group of conditions but the most serious, and common, is sickle cell anaemia, with sufferers generally of African or Caribbean origin [i.e. Negroes].

The disease affects red blood cells, which help carry oxygen around the body, and these cells are distorted in shape into a sickle (crescent) shape, which means they can get stuck in blood vessels and block the flow of blood.


People are born with sickle cell anaemia, inheriting it from their parents. If both parents carry the gene for sickle haemoglobin, there is a one in four chance the child will have sickle cell anaemia.

A simple blood test shows whether a person is a carrier of the sickle cell gene - carriers do not have symptoms. Men and women should find out whether they are a carrier before they start a family so they can get information and find out what choices they can make.

In England all pregnant women are offered screening , and newborn babies are offered a test for the disease. [All White women are offered screening to determine whether they carry sickle cell? This is non-discrimination carried to the point of absurdity!]

Symptoms can include episodes of pain in the joints, bones, stomach and chest and more severe symptoms may include chronic anaemia, jaundice and damage over time to the heart, lungs and liver.


:: BLOOD PRESSURE AND STROKE People from the African and African Caribbean communities [i.e. Negroes] are more at risk of high blood pressure and stroke, than the general population.

"It's not fully understood why African Caribbean people are likely to have high blood pressure," says Professor Graham MacGregor of the Blood Pressure Association.

"However, we know that a healthy diet combined with exercise and awareness can make a vital difference in preventing early death from stroke, heart attack or heart disease."


The Blood Pressure Association has a booklet, Healthy Eating The African Caribbean Way, available from 0208 772 4994/www.bpassoc.co.uk. [This is funny. They are recommending that Blacks eat a special diet suited to their race.]

:: DIABETES Those in the African Caribbean and South Asian communities in the UK are thought to be five times more likely than white people to have diabetes, according to Diabetes UK.

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't deal properly with glucose (sugar) in food. There are more than two million sufferers in the UK.


"Diabetes prevalence in the South Asian community is six times higher than in the general population and five times greater in people of Black or African Caribbean origin," says Jenne Dixit, equality and diversity officer at Diabetes UK.

She urges those of South Asian, Black or African Caribbean origin, who are over 25, have diabetes in the family and/or a waist measurement of 31.5 inches or more for females, 35 inches or more for South Asian males, or 37 inches for black males, should ask a GP for a test for diabetes.

"It is vital that we raise awareness and show people that reducing the risk of diabetes is by having a healthy, balanced diet and doing 30 minutes of activity at least five days a week," she says.

"People can still follow their traditional diet, but they can do it more healthily. So instead of frying with a lot of oil, use only a teaspoonful, or try baking and steaming instead."


:: KELOID SCARRING Some scars grow lumpy and larger than the wound they are healing. While this can happen to anybody, it is more likely in people with black skin.

Although rarely painful, sufferers can feel embarrassed or upset if the scar is particularly visible.

"A keloid scar is an overgrown scar that can spread outside the original area of skin damage," says Indy Rihal of the British Skin Foundation.

"People with dark skin get keloids much more easily than people with fairer skin, and it is common in people with black skin. They're most common between the ages of 10 and 30, and can run in families," Rihal says.

"Keloid scars are shiny and raised above the surrounding skin, and can feel hard and rubbery. They can appear anywhere, but tend to form on the shoulders, head and neck."


You can't stop a keloid from happening, but you can avoid any deliberate cuts or breaks in the skin, for example tattoos or piercings, including on the earlobes.

"Avoid surgery on the skin for cosmetic purposes, and if you have acne, see your doctor to have it treated and minimise the risk of scarring," says Rihal.


:: See www.nhs.uk/livewell/blackhealth for more information on black health.

[Source: http://www.halesowennews.co.uk/newsxtra/3849277.print/ ]

14 November 2008

Shakedown for Europe, Negotiation for Jews

Israeli banks are believed to have held accounts of Jews who died during World War II, from money deposited before the State of Israel was created. But these Israeli banks are not being subjected to the kind of shakedown that occurred in Europe, where the agitation for Switzerland's banks to open their records revealed only a disappointingly small number of dormant bank accounts that had belonged to Jews. (The talk of dormant Jewish bank accounts then gave way to agitation over Jewish gold, a much more nebulous issue where refutation of false claims is much more difficult.) Switzerland and some other European states were pressured by the United States to settle with the World Jewish Congress even though, as the Wall Street Journal's Cam Simpson states below, "it's impossible to know how much was really lost," and, "There is no reliable registry of the dead nor of their international assets."

Actually there is a fairly reliable registry of those who died in German camps, the Red Cross International Tracing Service in Bad Arolson, Switzerland. But these records, since they have recently been opened to the public and it has been seen that they show no indication of anything like six-million Jewish deaths, and indicate no deaths by gassing, apparently are no longer accepted by some people as a reliable registry. The figure of six-million dead Jews is the sacred assumption on which belief in vast quantities of usurped Jewish wealth is based. Any evidence contradicting the sacred assumption is automatically discounted.

Simpson suggests that many Jewish-owned bank accounts were abandoned not because of death, but because paperwork needed to access the account was lost. "Those who survived didn't typically hold onto the sort of records that can buttress a claim." This seems not unlikely in the turmoil and destruction of 1945.

For European banks, "Settlements were often based on fragmentary evidence and statistical estimates of what banks and institutions owed." All of this occurred under "intense international pressure," i.e. under pressure from the Jewish-dominated Clinton Administration, represented by Undersecretary of State Stuart Eizenstadt. Israeli banks by contrast get "a chance to fight claims case-by-case, then shekel-by-shekel within each case." The Israeli banks will end up paying relatively little.

The way the matter is being handled in Israel is the way it should have been handled in Europe, instead of the strongarm treatment from Big Jew-S-A.

Battle for Holocaust Assets Roils Israel
NOVEMBER 12, 2008

RAMAT GAN, Israel -- The global quest to ferret out money and property left behind by Jews killed in the Holocaust is now targeting Israel, and investigators say it's proving at least as difficult in the Jewish state as it did in Europe.

Many big banks and the government itself have resisted efforts to claim hundreds of millions of dollars in compensation for bank deposits, land, corporate shares, art and other assets that investigators say once belonged to Jews killed by the Nazis and their allies.

"I cannot say that the Israeli establishment has been, or is, happy about the return of properties," says Avraham Roet, the recently retired chairman of the Company for Location & Restitution of Holocaust Victims Assets Ltd. The private firm, often referred to simply as the Company, was created by the Israeli parliament after its investigators identified up to 9,000 bank accounts suspected of belonging to Holocaust victims.

Thousands of European Jews deposited or invested tidy sums here during the decades before World War II, often without visiting what was then British-controlled Palestine. After many were killed in the Holocaust [which generally means died of typhus], their substantial assets went unclaimed, passing into the hands of the government of the newly created nation of Israel and some of its largest banks.

While some Israeli institutions have challenged the validity of the Company's claims, they are generally loath to say much about any of this in public. Mr. Roet and others say the institutions privately argue they should be treated more gently than their European counterparts because they are in a different position than banks and governments that actively assisted the Nazis.


As in Europe, it's impossible to know how much was really lost in Israel. The Nazis and their surrogates tried to hide their genocide. [On other occasions, Jewish writers like Daniel Goldhagen will say that the "genocide" was no secret at all. The "Holocaust" is claimed to have been either a secret or public knowledge depending on which serves the argument being made.] There is no reliable registry of the dead nor of their international assets. Those who survived didn't typically hold onto the sort of records that can buttress a claim.

In the 1990s and earlier this decade, Jewish groups threatened or took legal action against European governments and businesses. The U.S. got involved, threatening reluctant European [countries] with sanctions.

Under intense international pressure, deals were reached across the Continent. Settlements were often based on fragmentary evidence and statistical estimates of what banks and institutions owed. After hammering out a total price tag, the targeted institutions funded settlement pools or agreed to specific procedures for paying claims. Heirs with verified accounts or other documented assets typically got top priority. The remaining cash was designated for other victims of Nazi persecution, including refugees and slave laborers.

The European cases led Israeli scholars in 2000 to publish research showing heirs had been having difficulty recovering assets in the Jewish state. The revelations led to a parliamentary investigation, and, in 2006, the law creating the Company.

The Israeli law sets up a process similar to the one in Europe. Verified heirs are supposed to get paid first, with needy Holocaust survivors getting the rest. But there's a crucial difference from earlier settlements: The Company must target each institution over each asset that it allegedly held. As with Bank Leumi, this gives the targeted institutions a chance to fight claims case-by-case, then shekel-by-shekel within each case.