"Germany's adversaries are not the peoples of the Soviet Union, but exclusively the Jewish-Bolshevik Soviet Government with its functionaries, and the Communist Party, which works toward world revolution." - a directive from Wehrmacht Senior General Alfred Jodl
Stalin and the Jews
from Freispruch für Deutschland by Heinrich Härtle, 1965;
translated by Hadding Scott, 2008.
The fusion of Russian Communism and Jewry however began much earlier. The word pogrom is of Russian origin. Because Jewry under the rule of the Czars and the Orthodox Church had been oppressed and limited by special laws, the first Jewish revolutionaries and anarchists came out of the Jewish ghettos.*
As a religion and as a nation, Jewish Orthodoxy opposed all attempts at conversion and assimilation. Through centuries Czarist Orthodoxy and Jewish Orthodoxy stood irreconcilably in opposition.
Naturally the Jewish revolutionaries had to use revolutionary socialist and communist ideas and organizations against the hated Czardom. Often Jewish Communism was first an anti-Czarism. In this historical transformation arose the close linkage of Communism and revolutionary Jewry, which a generalizing propaganda then simplified into the unity of Bolshevism and Jewry.
The Catholic professor for philosophy and church-history, Denis Fahr, proved in his writing The Rulers of Russia that in the years 1918-1919 among 556 leading functionaries of the Bolshevik State there were 457 Jews. The Central Committee of the Communist Party consisted of twelve members, of which nine were Jews. In the Council of the People's Commissars** were found seventeen Jews and five non-Jews. According to official information, in 1920, out of 545 members of the Bolshevik Administration 447 were Jews, and that with a Jewish population of 7.8 million within a total population of 160 million.
The Jewish Chronicle of 6 January 1933 reveals that in Soviet Russia a third of the civil servants are Jews. That is a six-fold overrepresentation compared to non-Jewish civil servants. According to a statistic that was presented to the American Military Tribunal in the Einsatzgruppen Trial, the Supreme Soviet in the Crimea consisted of 50% Jews, and the People's Commissariat consisted of 40% Jews.
Jewish participation in the People's Commissariats:
school system.............80%............16-fold over-representation
(For this calculation the Jewish portion of the total population was assumed to be at least 5%. Other estimates calculate with 6%.)
Especially strong was the Jewish participation as secret police and as political commissars attached to military units. The High Commissar of the Federation of Peoples of Danzig and later President of the International Red Cross, Professor Burckhardt, reports that the Polish Minister-President Slavoy-Skladkovsy stated in a conversation that 90% of all Communists in Poland were Jews and 60% of all Polish Jews were Communists.
This strong judaization of the Polish Communist Party made the identification of Jewry and Bolshevism seem immediately credible in Poland; perhaps this judaization was also largely a reaction of the Jewish population to the anti-Semitic measures of the clerical-authoritarian Polish leadership class, which at the same time had a radical anti-Communist orientation. Here Jewish and Communist interests seemed largely to overlap.
Such facts had to be propagandistically distorted and exaggerated in order to be able then, in the struggle over life and death, to deal with the Red Army -- especially with the partisans -- Jews and commissars, Jews and partisans, as a unity.
In a number of orders of the OKW and OKH, and of the Heeresgruppen and Armees of the Ostheer that were cited at Nuremberg, Jewry and Bolshevism are therefore designated and attacked as the most dangerous enemies. One can justly assess these representations only if one considers that in the east the same circumstances did not govern as on other fronts; rather it was a permanent war-emergency, in which all civilized laws of war, other than strength, had been set aside long ago.
In an order of the Army High Command (OKW) from 18 June 1941 the representation of the unity of Jewry and Communism appears especially drastic:
"Germany's opponents are not the peoples of the Soviet Union, but exclusively the Jewish-Bolshevik Soviet Government with its functionaries, and the Communist Party, which works toward world revolution."
Nevertheless the Wehrmacht did not immediately take part in the Jew-hostile anti-terror, but on the contrary, repeatedly stemmed and often even prevented pogroms of the population liberated from Bolshevist oppression. Certainly they could not avoid being aware that these pogroms were not just inhuman madness, but the spontaneous outbreak of retaliation in a population that, amid the retreat of the Red Army and the NKVD troops, grasped the first opportunity to avenge itself on its tormentors, and in the frenzy of retribution wanted to make Jewry pay for all sufferings that they had endured under Soviet terror. Collective terror brought collective retaliation.
The Warsaw Uprising*** led to Jewry's most serious losses. It could be suppressed only by military means. Here warfare was waged on both sides, in which not only Jewish men, but even Jewish women and children remorselessly committed themselves, and were combatted just as brutally. In vain had the Jewish side hoped for Polish and Soviet help. The frightful consequences are known, since over 500,000 Jews had lived in the Warsaw Ghetto.****
Open warfare however remained the exception, partisan warfare the rule. Terror and counter-terror supported the assumption of the far-reaching identity of Jews, partisans, saboteurs, spies, and snipers.
As effective as the equation Bolshevism = Jewry may have been in war-propaganda, in its military results it recoiled on its authors. Necessarily the nationalist and slavic-imperialist forces of the Soviet Power were thereby dangerously underestimated.***** Whatever pretexts and causes one can adduce for the struggle of the Einsatzgruppen, it remains the shocking fact that in the defense against partisans one adapted to the level of the enemies as one punished the strong participation of Jewish elements in the Bolshevik terror with collective liquidation of defenseless Jewish civilian population, and thereby committed war-crimes which are as unjustifiable as the mass-slaughter of defenseless Germans in the east, and the terror-bombing in the west.
Since 1945, however, wherever the West had to fight against the same enemy, against the same degenerate methods of warfare, it has come to such brutal retaliatory operations. In Nuremberg one knows only the retaliation, not the provocation.
* This kind of explanation for why so many Jews have been leftist revolutionaries amounts to an apology for the Jews. The identification of Jews with leftist revolution antedates the 1917 Bolshevik takeover in Russia by well over a century, and it was by no means limited to Russia. Jews had an interest in the overthrow of all true monarchies because of the penchant of absolute monarchs for expelling all Jews periodically. The French author Édouard Drumont argued that Jews had been heavily involved in the French Revolution. Circumstantially, it seems likely, since the importance of Freemasonry in various revolutions is generally admitted and the doctrine of the higher degrees of Freemasonry, above the third degree, is largely Jewish Cabalism. Freemasonry is also heavily populated with Jews. A famous Jewish Freemason was Moses Hess, mentor of Karl Marx. A well known revolutionary conspirator of the 18th century was Adam "Spartacus" Weishaupt, head of the quasi-Masonic "Bavarian Illuminati," whose doctrine included key points that later appeared in Marxism.
** The Council of the People's Commissars is what the government of the Soviet Union was called immediately following the Bolshevik takeover. The name was invented by Leon Trotsky (born Bronstein).
*** Härtle means the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 18 January to 16 May 1943, not to be confused with the Warsaw Uprising staged by the Polish Home Army 1 August to 2 October 1944. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was caused by the false rumor that Jews deported from Warsaw to Treblinka were being exterminated there instead of simply being made to work.
**** Härtle seems to imply that all 500,000 residents of the Warsaw Ghetto were killed. This could only be the case if one assumes that the Jews deported from the Ghetto were killed. By the time of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising most of the Jews had been deported. The Jewish death toll in the uprising was only 13,000. Another 50,000 surrendered at the end, and they were not all killed, as is proven by the existence of Marek Edelman, who wrote a book about his experience in the uprising.
***** The Germans probably could have done more to secure Slavic support, but the primary methods used by the Soviet Government to motivate opposition to the German invasion seemed to have little to do with nationalism or pan-Slavic sentiment. Most notable is the deployment of military commissars with submachineguns with instructions to shoot anyone who tried to retreat. Solzhenitsyn wrote that the Russian peasants at first welcomed the Germans as liberators but then became disenchanted when they were not allowed to leave the collective farms.